The site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times in various occasions. Its first historical record dates back from the 9th century, when Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress near Manzanares' river. This represented the border between Al-Andalús and the kingdoms of Castilla y León, and it helped protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and also as a starting point for Muslim offensives. The longest invasions were by Romans and Muslims.
However, after the surrender of Toledo, Christians conquered the city and it was integrated into the kingdom of Castilla as a property of the Crown. Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs.
Since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castilla, which were joined in 1309 for the first time under Ferdinand IV of Castilla.
During the Reconquista, in 1494, the "unbelievers" were expelled and mosques and other indicative buildings disappeared. After Enrique of Tastamara, Juan I and King Leon V of Armenia, the city was rebuilt by Enrique III. He reincorporated Madrid under the Crown of Castille again.
Later on, Enrique VI death caused the formation of two distinct bands within the Castilla kingdom, which disputed the succession of the throne. The victorious "Catholic Kings"; Isabel and Fernando overcame Doña Juana's followers.
In 1530, the number of urban inhabitants was 4,060. However, sixty years later, Philip II of Spain moved his court from Valladolid to Madrid. He installed it in the old castle and the population started growing steadfast, reaching up to 37,500.
Almost two centuries later, in 1700, the death of Charles II of Spain resulted in the War of the Spanish succession. The city supported the claim of Philip of Anjou as Philip V, who ended up being proclaimed king of Spain until 1746, when he died.
In 19th century, an economic crisis affected Spain. This period was also dominated by the political instability throughout the whole country, which culminated with the Spanish civil war from 1936-39.
Once the civil war finished, the dictatorship of General Franco started. Consequently, all the national institutions moved to Madrid. After Franco's death in 1975, life in Madrid changed as Spain shifted to a system of democratic government.
In 1983 Madrid became the capital of the Autonomous Community of Madrid, which was created under a 1981 law. The region grew as an industrial centre to become one of the wealthiest autonomous communities in Spain.
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