It is hard to comprehend the total mass of Canada. The world's second-largest country by total area, Canada extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is 9,984,670 km2 or 3,855,100 sq miles (land: 9,093,507 km2 or 3,511,023 sq miles; water: 891,163 km2 or 344,080 sq miles) which makes it slightly less than three-fifths as large as Russia and slightly larger than Europe.
Covering 41% of northern North America, the country is divided into ten provinces and three territories. Canada shares the world's longest land border with its neighbor to the south and northwest (Alaska), the United States of America. Greenland lies is to the northeast and off the southern coast of Newfoundland lies Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, an overseas collectivity of France. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60 degrees W and 141 degrees W longitude to the North Pole - however, this claim is contested.
The physical geography of Canada is widely varied. Boreal forests cover much of the country, with ice taking over the northerly Arctic regions and through the Rocky Mountains, and the flat Canadian Prairies of agriculture occupying the southwest. The Appalachian Mountains (more specifically the Notre Dame and Long Range Mountains) are approximately 380 million years in age and include notable mountains of Mount Jacques-Cartier of Québec (Elevation: 1,268 meter or 4,160 feet) and Mount Carleton of New Brunswick (Elevation: 817 meter or 2,680 feet). The Great Lakes feed into the St. Lawrence River in the southeast, which along with history has made it the host to much of Canada's population.
Environmental concerns include air pollution and the resulting acid rain. These factors have adversely affected lakes, forests, and ocean. Metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions have all been blamed for these effects. As part of the larger picture, global climate change and the warming of the polar region will affect the world at large, and in particular - Canada.
Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories in four main regions (Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, Northern Canada; "Eastern Canada" refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together). Provinces have more autonomy than territories such as social programs like health care, education, and welfare.
As Canada is such a large nation, average temperatures and climate vary from region to region. Coastal Canada is more temperate, offering moderate highs and lows, with the interior and Prairie provinces experiencing more dramatic shifts. In the north, snow can cover the ground year-round. The National Climate Data and Information Archive offers detailed information on climate throughout the country.
In Huron-Indian, Toronto means "meeting place, which appropriately describes the City of Toronto. Known for being "the world within a city," Toronto is the largest city in Canada with 2.7 million residents and the fourth most populous city in all of North America. Toronto is one of the most multicultural and multiracial cities in the world with more than half (51.5 %) identifying as a visible minority. While the primary language of Toronto is English, there are over 160 difference languages spoken throughout the city.
Toronto has a hilly terrain throughout the city that has be compared to those seen in the city of San Francisco and operates on a grid system which makes maneuvering through the city easier on residents.
If you're planning a move to Toronto, be sure to bring along both your summer and winter wardrobe to ensure you will be comfortable in every season. Because Toronto has a semi-continental climate, summers are hot, and winters will be cold. Toronto's proximity to the Great Lakes ensure that Toronto will experience summer humidity. While Toronto may have slightly warmer winters than the rest of "The Great White North," winter can still be severe and harsh. You should expect snow on the ground December-March. Summers and winters tend to last longer than springs and autumns. The weather can vary within the spring and fall seasons, both experiencing varying periods of rain and sun. Snow can also occur during the spring and fall seasons.
For up-to-date weather information, consult Toronto Weather.
Toronto's time zone is Eastern Standard Time (EST) and the province of Ontario is an observer of Daylight Savings Time
Often called the "City of Neighborhoods", Toronto is home to many different neighborhoods with distinct personalities. In fact, the city is home to 140 different neighborhoods.
Some of the main neighborhoods include:
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