The Republic of China (RoC) currently has jurisdiction over Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu, and the Pescadores Islands (Penghu) and several smaller islands. Taiwan's two major cities, Taipei and Kaohsiung, are direct-controlled municipalities and the rest of Taiwan (including the Penghu Islands) are administered together as the Taiwan Province.
Trying to speak about Taiwan and China and their relationship can get very tricky. Some Taiwanese will get very offended if you imply that Taiwan is part of China. Others will get very offended if you imply that Taiwan is not part of China. Referring to the People's Republic of China (PRC) as "mainland China" rather than simply China may also offend as the term generally excludes Hong Kong and Macau. The best ways to refer to the area may be "Greater China", or by simply referring to the island as "Taiwan".
The RoC operates within a semi-presidential representative democratic republic. The President is head of state and the premier (President of the Executive Yuan) is head of government, and of a dominant party system. The current president is Ma Ying-jeou. The official president website is the place to find out what is happening in the country as well as with the presidential office.
The party system primarily consists of the Kuomintang (KMT or "Chinese Nationalist Party" or Pan-Blue Coalition) which favours closer links to mainland China and the pro-independence Democratic Progressive Party (DPP or Pan-Green Coalition).
Legislative power lies within the government and parliament.
The Judiciary is independent of the executive and legislative branches.
Taipei City is administered as a direct-controlled municipality directly under the Executive Yuan. The mayor of Taipei City is selected by public election since 1994. Hau Lung-pin is the current mayor of Taipei.
Ketagalan Boulevard is the site of the Republic of China's Presidential Office Building and other government structures. This is the site of inauguration, national holiday parades, receptions for visiting dignitaries, political demonstrations, and public festivals.
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