Overview of Bucharest

Politics of Bucharest

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Romanian Politics

Romania is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic. Its governance structure is outlined in the country's Constitution, and is based on the model of the French Republic. The Romanian Constitution was adopted on December 8th 1991, as the country was transitioning from a dictatorship to a democracy, and amended in 2003. The fundamental principle of the institutional structure is the separation of powers: executive, legislative and judiciary.

Executive Branch

The executive power is split between the President, who acts as the Head of State, and the Prime Minister, who is Head of Government.

The President is elected through universal, equal, direct, secret and non-compulsory vote granted to all citizens over 18 years, for a maximum of two terms. The length of the presidential term was extended in 2003 from 4 to 5 years. As head of state, the President's duties are safeguarding the Constitution, foreign affairs and the functioning of public authorities, as well as ratifying the laws.

Romania's President appoints the Prime Minister who, in turn, appoints the members of the Government.

Following the latest elections that took place in December 2014, the president of Romania is currently Klaus Iohannis.

Legislative Branch

The legislative power lies with the country's Parliament. The Parliament consists of the Chamber of Deputies, with 334 seats, and the Senate, with 137 seats. Its members are elected by universal vote for a 4-year term.

Judiciary Branch

The judiciary system of Romania is independent from the other institutions of government.

The judiciary authority is composed of the judicial courts, organized in a hierarchical structure overseen by the High Court of Justice an Cassation, the Public Ministry and the Superior Council of Magistrates, which has attributions in relation to the recruitment of the prosecutors and judges.

Additionally, the following bodies have various roles in ensuring the independence of the judiciary branch:

  • The Constitutional Court
  • The National Anticorruption Directorate

The legal system and court practices are strongly influenced by French law.

Political System in Romania

  • The nominations and doctrines of the political parties in Romania have undergone numerous changes as the country finds its way towards a stable democracy. Currently, the main political parties are:
  • Social Democrat Party (PSD), the only representative of social democracy in Romania, member of the Socialist International.
  • National Liberal Party (PNL), a centre-right wing party of historical importance in Romania, founded in 1875. It is a member of the European Liberal Party.
  • Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR), a centre-right wing party representing the interests of the Hungarian minority
  • Union for Saving Romania (USR), a newly formed centre party pleading for deep reforms in the Romanian society


As the country's capital, Bucharest is the seat of all the central state institutions. The seat of the Presidential institution is the Cotroceni Palace, while the Government is located in the Victory Palace. The Parliament holds its meeting in the Parliament Palace, formerly known as the People's House.

Bucharest is administered by the General Mayor and the City Council. The position of General Mayor is currently held by Gabriela Firea, until 2020. Additionally, the city is divided into six sectors, each with its own mayor and city council.

For contact details, see the Bucharest City Hall's website.

The sector city halls can be contacted at the following web addresses:

Update 21/12/2018

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