Overview of Lima

Politics of Lima

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Politics in Perú

Perú is a presidential representative democratic republic, and its government is divided into three branches: the executive, the legislative and the judicial.

Its main representative is the President of Perú, which ispopularly elected for a five-year term. The president is both head of state and head of government. The "Fujimori case", a constitutional amendment passed in 2000, prevents re-election. The first vice president and the second vice president are also popularly elected but have no constitutional functions unless the president is unable to perform his duties.

Elections in Perú

All Peruvians over the age of 18 years living in Perú or abroad have the obligation to vote. The vote is universal, secret and direct.  

During the elections, political gatherings are forbidden, while public gatherings of any sort are prohibited during voting hours, including religious and entertainment events. Even the selling of alcohol is not permitted and bars/clubs are closed.

Executive, Legislative and Judiciary Power

  • Executive Branch: The principal executive body is the Council of Ministers, comprised of 15 members and headed by a prime minister. The president appoints its members, who must be ratified by the Congress. All executive laws sent to Congress must be approved by the Council of Ministers.
  • Legislative Branch: The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Congress of 120 members popular elected for a five-year term. Perú has a multi-party system. The Peruvian Congress accepts/declines laws, ratifies treaties, authorizes government loans and approves the government budget.
  • Judicial Branch: A 16-member Supreme Court heads the judicial branch of government. The Constitutional Tribunal works on the constitution on matters of individual rights. Superior courts in departmental capitals review appeals from decisions by lower courts. Courts of first instance are in provincial capitals and are divided into civil, penal and special chambers. The judiciary has created several temporary specialized courts to reduce the large backlog of cases pending final court action.

Political System in Lima

The organs of the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima are:

  • The Council (El Concejo Metropolitano). It consists of the Mayor and five aldermen, according to the Municipal Elections Law (Ley de Elecciones Municipales)
  • The Mayor of Lima (La Alcaldía Metropolitana)
  • The Metropolitan Assembly (La Asamblea Metropolitana de Lima). The Metropolitan Assembly is an advisory and coordinating body.

As the capital city of the Republic of Perú, Lima is the seat of the three powers that make up the Peruvian State. Thus, the Executive Branch has its headquarters in the Government Palace located in the Plaza Mayor. The Congress of the Republic constitutes the Legislative Power of Perú, and the Judicial Power of Perú, with the Supreme Court of Justice as its highest authority, is also located in the city.

All the Ministries are headquartered in the city of Lima.

Regarding international institutions, the city is also the Andean Community of General Nations Secretariat and the South American Community of Nations headquarters, among other regional and international organizations.

Since the political, industrial and financial power of the country is concentrated in Lima, it has produced a serious centralism, which is demonstrated in the population and economic disproportion of the capital city in comparison with other important cities of the country, such as Arequipa, Trujillo or Cuzco.

Local Government in Lima

The city is encompassed in the Province of Lima, which is subdivided into 43 districts. The Municipality has jurisdiction throughout the territory of the province. Each of the 43 districts over which the city extends, it has its own District Municipality, which has jurisdiction over its own district, but they also have an obligation of coordination with the Metropolitan Municipality. The current mayor of the city is Marco Parra Sánchez.

Political Government in Lima

Unlike the rest of the republic, the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima also exercises Regional Government functions since it is not part of any administrative region, according to Article 65 of Law 27867 of Regional Governments of November 16, 2002.

Update 7/05/2019

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